Romanus of Tusculum was the brother of Pope Benedict VIII. While his brother was on the throne of Peter, Romanus, a layman, was both counsel and senator of Rome, wielding much power. When Benedict died in April 1024, Romanus may have paid his way onto the empty...
The years 1002 and 1003 were very difficult for the papacy. In the previous year, the Roman nobles, under the leadership of the son of the slain Crescentius II, John Crescentius, had begun a revolt. It was a serious enough threat to the papacy that the young emperor,...
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