One of the outstanding papal reformers was Pope Nicholas II, Gerhard of Burgundy. Born between 990 and 995, he grew up near one of the chief reform-minded abbeys of France, Cluny. Certainly, he was exposed to the attitudes this abbey promoted. As a young priest,...
Several months ago, this series addressed the Tusculum and Crescenti families. These two familes controlled the Papacy for about 150 years. The last of the family popes was Pope Benedict IX. We thought that, when the Germans began to interfere with the papacy, the two...
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